Young persons under the Youth Criminal Justice Act (YCJA) are between the ages of 12 and 17 years. If you are younger than 12 years, the Youth Criminal Justice Act does not apply to you, but the police may still deal with you if you break the law.
In Canada, no one is legally required to answer police questions. However, in some circumstances, you must provide information such as your name and address. For example, if the police stop you when you are driving a car, you must give them your name and address and show them your driver’s license, car registration and proof of insurance. If you are charged with an offence, you must give police your name and address so that your identity can be confirmed. It is an offence to try to deliberately confuse or mislead the police and you could be charged.
The police may arrest you without a warrant if they believe you committed an offence or saw you committing an offence. Once arrested, the police can search your person for their own safety or if they believe that you may destroy evidence. The police can hold you in custody if the Court finds it necessary to prevent further crime or to make sure that you attend your Court hearings. If you have been arrested or detained until your Court appearance, your parent or guardian must be notified as soon as possible. Where a minor offence is committed, the police may release you with a Notice to Appear in Court or a Summons. If you are released, your parent or guardian must be notified in writing of the date of the youth Court hearing. If you are a young person who is married, your spouse may be notified. If no parent is available, an adult relative or other appropriate relative will be notified.
Rights are guaranteed for everyone in the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms. Young persons have the same rights and freedoms as adults. The Charter guarantees basic rights to everyone who is detained or arrested:
In order for you to understand your rights, the police must explain the rights in a language that is appropriate to your age and understanding. If you do not understand what the police are telling you, then repeat what the police officer said and ask if that is what they meant. Everything you say voluntarily or spontaneously to the police may be used as evidence against you in criminal proceedings and it is important not to speak to the police without first consulting with a lawyer.
The right to a lawyer means you can call a lawyer at any stage of the criminal proceedings against you. This means before and after the arrest is made. The police must tell you that you have a right to a lawyer and if you cannot afford a lawyer, that there are free lawyers to assist you. They must provide you with resources to help you in reaching a lawyer of your choice, which include phone books and a list of phone numbers. The police must give you an opportunity to call a lawyer, and let you speak to your lawyer in a private room. You have the right to make multiple calls to a lawyer until you are satisfied that you have received proper legal advice, and the police are not allowed to rush you through this process. It is important that you tell the police if you are not satisfied with the advice that you received, or that you have not yet reached a lawyer. The police must also tell you that you have a right to talk with your parent or another adult before being questioned.
The police must also tell you that you have a right to remain silent and that any statement you make can be used against you. There can be no improper questioning of young persons by police or other persons in authority. Do not say anything that would incriminate you such as statements or answers to questions about your activity or involvement in any crime. Your statement should be made in the presence of your counsel, parent or guardian unless you waive that right. The police must tell you that you have a right to have counsel and your parent or guardian present while you make a statement to the police.
A wavier of your rights must be videotaped or be in writing. If it is in writing, the police must obtain a statement signed by you that you have been told of the right that you are waiving. You should consult with a lawyer before you waive any of your rights to the police. Any statement given by a young person to the police will be ruled inadmissible if the statement was found to be given under duress imposed by anyone in authority. You cannot be forced into making a statement or waiving your rights. Even if you decide to waive your rights, you can always change your mind and not make a statement or answer questions.
If you appear in Court without a lawyer, the Judge will inform you about the right to be represented by a lawyer and adjourn the matter until you have time to obtain a lawyer. If you are unable to obtain legal counsel, the Judge shall refer you to the local legal aid program or direct that you be represented by counsel. If an Order is made for representation, the government will pay for the lawyer. You may consult with a lawyer or your parent or any other appropriate person you choose. You must have been given a reasonable opportunity to consult with counsel and a parent or other adult relative or an appropriate adult if no relative.
If you do tell the police something that you should not have told them, there are laws to prohibit the use of your statements, oral or written, in Court proceedings as admissible evidence. You should speak to your lawyer about any statements made to the police. The statement may be admissible in Court if the police told you that:
You will be fingerprinted and photographed if you are charged with a serious or indictable offence. This is done as soon as you are arrested for the crime. Otherwise, you may receive a notice to attend a certain place and time for fingerprints and photographs. Fingerprinting is only to be done if you have been “accused” or “convicted” of an offence. If you are found guilty, then the records are kept by the police for a period of time, depending on the type of offence.